OBSERVER PATTERN tagged Questions - Page 1
Applicability of Observer Pattern and its drawbacks
When one object changes its state, all its observers(or dependents) are notified and updated automatically. This pattern used to maintain the consistency between the related objects. Observer Pattern is also called as "Publish - Subscribe" mechanism.
- Will be used when a change in one object requires a changing in another object.
- When one object depend on the other
- Widely used in GUI Applications(Model - View - Controller)
- Use this pattern to reduce coupling
- Memory Leak: If domain objects observed other domain objects, When we are out of that scope we need to delete that domain objects. Because along with the objects it will hold the observer relation ship. Long lived unused objects may lead to memory leak
- It is not clear in advance how many and which objects will be notified due to the state change
- Return type has to be void
- Update operations are asynchronous
Design Patterns used in .Net Framework
As we know that .net is an OOPs based language so we can easily implement design patterns in our projects but some times it comes to mind that, which all design patters microsoft .NET Base Class Library is using internally. NOTE: This question also popular in interviews. Lets walk through few Design patterns used in .NET Base Class Library:
This observer design pattern is used for delegates and events.
Iterator design pattern used in foreach in C# and For Each in Visual Basic .NET
System.IO.Stream :Any useful executable program involves either reading input, writing output, or both. Regardless of the source of the data being read or written, it can be treated abstractly as a sequence of bytes. .NET uses the System.IO.Stream class to represent this abstraction. CryptoStream :System.Security.Cryptography.CryptoStream to encrypt and decrypt Streams on the fly, without the rest of the application needing to know anything more than the fact that it is a Stream.
By allowing managed classes and COM components to interact despite their interface differences, RCWs are an example of the Adapter pattern. The Adapter pattern lets you adapt one interface to another. COM doesn't understand the System.String class, so the RCW adapts it to something that it can understand. Even though you can't change how a legacy component works, you can still interact with it. Adapters are frequently used like this.
System.Convert: System.Convert class contains a host of static methods that work like factory design pattern. System.Net.WebRequest: This class is used to request and receive a response from a resource on the Internet.FTP, HTTP, and file system requests are supported by default. To create a request, call the Create method and pass in a URI. The Create method itself determines the appropriate protocol for the request and returns the appropriate subclass of WebRequest: HttpWebRequest, FtpWebRequest, or FileWebRequest. The caller doesn't need to know the specifics of each protocol, only how to invoke the factory and work with the WebRequest that gets returned. If the URI changes from an HTTP address to an FTP address, the code won't have to change at all.
Both Array and ArrayList provide the capability to sort the objects contained in the collection via the Sort method. Strategy Design Pattern is used with Array and Arraylist to sort them using different strategy without changing any client code using IComparable interface
Composite Pattern in ASP.NET:
ASP.NET has lots of controls. A control may be a simple single item like a Literal, or it could be composed of a complex collection of child controls, like a DataGrid is. Regardless, calling the Render method on either of these controls should still perform the same intuitive function. Because the domain of controls is so diverse, there are several intermediate derived classes like WebControl and BaseDataList that serve as base classes for other controls. Though these classes expose additional properties and methods, they still retain the child management functions and core operations inherited from Control. In fact, the use of the Composite pattern helps to hide their complexity, if desired. Regardless of whether a control is a Literal or a DataGrid, the use of Composite means you can just call Render and everything will sort itself out.
Template Method Pattern:
Custom controls are example of Template Method Pattern.